Now that the Schengen Agreement is part of the acquis communautaire, it has lost treaty status for EU members, which could only be changed on its terms. Instead, changes are made in accordance with the EU legislative process under the EU Treaties.  Ratification by the former signatories of the Convention is not necessary to amend or repeal the former Schengen acquis in whole or in part.  Acts laying down the conditions for accession to the Schengen area are now adopted by a majority of EU legislative bodies. The new EU Member States do not sign the Schengen Agreement as such, but are required to implement the Schengen rules within the framework of the already existing EU legislation that any new entrant must accept. [Citation needed] It takes its name from the city of Schengen in Luxembourg, where the agreement was signed in 1985. It entered into force in 1995. Vatican City has an open border with Italy. In 2006, it expressed its interest in joining the Schengen Agreement with a view to closer cooperation on the exchange of information and similar activities covered by the Schengen Information System.  Exceptionally, Italy allowed people to visit Vatican City without being accepted for an Italian visa, and then escorted by police between the airport and the Vatican or to use a helicopter. [Citation needed] However, there is no customs union (including customs duties) between Italy and the Vatican, so all vehicles are controlled at the Vatican`s borders.
In 1999, the United Kingdom formally requested to participate in certain provisions of the Schengen acquis – Title III on police security and judicial cooperation – and this request was approved by the Council of the European Union on 29 May 2000.  The UK`s formal participation in previously approved areas of cooperation was implemented by a 2004 Council Decision which entered into force on 1 January 2005.  Although the UK is not part of the passport-free Schengen area, it has nevertheless used the Schengen Information System, a government database used by European countries to store and disseminate information about people and goods. This has allowed the UK to share information with countries that are part of the Schengen Agreement, often to negotiate law enforcement.  In 2020, the United Kingdom stated that it would withdraw from these agreements at the end of its transition period. However, certain third-country nationals are allowed to stay in the Schengen area for more than 90 days without the need to apply for a long-stay visa. For example, France does not require citizens of Andorra, Monaco, San Marino and Vatican City to apply for a long-stay visa.  In addition, Article 20(2) of the Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement provides for this «in exceptional circumstances» and that bilateral agreements concluded by the various signatory States with other countries before the entry into force of the Convention continue to apply. As a result, New Zealand nationals may, for example, stay for up to 90 days in one of the Schengen countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom) that had already concluded bilateral visa waiver agreements with the New Zealand Government before the entry into force of the agreement, without the need to apply for a long-stay visa. but for travel to other Schengen countries, the 90 days apply within a period of 180 days.            [excessive citations] Andorra is a landlocked country and has no airport or seaport, but there are several heliports.
Visitors to the country can only access it by road or helicopter via Schengen france or Spain members. Andorra maintains border controls with France and Spain. There are also border controls in the other direction, but these are more focused on customs controls (Andorra is considered a tax haven with 4% VAT). Andorra does not need a visa. Citizens of EU countries need an identity card or passport to enter Andorra, while others need a passport or equivalent passport. Schengen visas are accepted, but travelers who need a visa to enter the Schengen area will need a multiple-entry visa to visit Andorra, as meant to enter Andorra and re-entering France or Spain is considered a new entry into the Schengen area. Andorran citizens do not receive a passport stamp when entering and leaving the Schengen area.  Ten local transportation agreements came into effect by June 2017[updated]. Three European microstates – Monaco, San Marino and Vatican City – are not officially part of Schengen, but are de facto considered in the Schengen area, meaning they are accessible without border controls. They have open borders and no border control with the Schengen countries around them.
Some national laws bear the text «Countries against which border controls are not carried out on the basis of the Schengen Agreement and Regulation (EU) No 562/2006″, which then includes micro-states and other non-European areas with open borders. . . .